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 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

Land Grants

Explanation of Types of Grants

Hispano
Private
Grants made to Hispano individuals who owned the entire grant and could sell it after the four year possession requirement was met. These grants did not include common lands, either at the outset or later.
Hispano
Community
Grants made to Hispano individuals who owned the entire grant and could sell it after the four year possession requirement was met. These grants did not include common lands, either at the outset or later.
Hispano
Quasi-community
Grants made to Hispano individuals who owned the entire grant and could sell it after the four year possession requirement was met. Unlike Hispano/private grants however, Hispano/quasi-community grants included an explicit or implied promise by the grantee to bring other settlers on the grant, and when those settlers arrived the grant would be operated like a community grant. The new settlers would receive tracts of private land with the implied right to use the unallotted land for grazing, wood-gathering, and other traditional uses. These rights were not enforceable by the users of the "common lands" unless they were expressed in writing. See Lobato v. Taylor opinion re the Taylor Ranch in the San Luis Valley.
Hispano
Grazing
This was a grant to individual Hispanos for the purposes of grazing their livestock. Settlement on the land was not required by law, for example the Cochiti Pasture Grant.
Pueblo
Grazing
A grant to an Native American Pueblo for the purpose of grazing Native American-owned livestock. No legal requirement to settle the land. An example of this type of grant is the grazing grant made to the pueblo of Cochiti by Governor Vélez Cachupín in 1766.
Pueblo
Cruzate

Grants to New Mexico Pueblos by Governor Domingo Jironza Petriz de Cruzate (1683-1686 and 1689-1691). The grants are not in the usual form of land grants, but rather purport to be the testimony of a Zia Native American named Bartolomé Ojeda, who was captured in 1689 after the Pueblo Revolt. Ojeda is asked as to each Pueblo whether he thought that pueblo would revolt again and he answers "no, that [Picuris] would not fail to render obedience [to the Spaniards]." Accordingly, Governor Cruzate makes a grant of four square leagues of land (about 17,700 acres) to each pueblo. Under Hispanic law and custom, the pueblos were considered to be entitled to four square leagues even without a grant. The Cruzate grants submitted to Surveyor General William Pelham were all confirmed by Congress, though they were later determined to be spurious. Since the pueblos were entitled to four square leagues of land in any case, the spurious character of the Cruzate grants is of little consequence from a legal standpoint.

Historically, however, questions over the genesis of these documents and whether they may have been based on legitimate documents, have not been fully answered. See Sandra Matthews-Lamb, 'Designing and Mischievous Individuals': The Cruzate Grants and the Office of the Surveyor General, New Mexico Historical Review 71 (October 1996): 341-359 (available on website).

Grants A-J | Grants L-R | Grants S-Z
Explanation of Types of Grants | Home Page|

 Abiquiú Genízaro Grant

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